CMI Seminar: Vijay Vazirani
Matching is as Easy as the Decision Problem, in the NC Model
Is matching in NC, i.e., is there a deterministic fast parallel algorithm for it? This has been an outstanding open question in TCS for over three decades, ever since the discovery of Random NC matching algorithms. Over the last five years, the TCS community has launched a relentless attack on this question, leading to the discovery of numerous powerful ideas. We give what appears to be the culmination of this line of work: An NC algorithm for finding a minimum weight perfect matching in a general graph with polynomially bounded edge weights, provided it is given an oracle for the decision problem. Consequently, for settling the main open problem, it suffices to obtain an NC algorithm for the decision problem.
We believe this new fact has qualitatively changed the nature of this open problem.
Our result builds on the work of Anari and Vazirani (2018), which used planarity of the input graph critically; in fact, in three different ways. Our main challenge was to adapt these steps to general graphs by appropriately trading planarity with the use of the decision oracle. The latter was made possible by the use of several of the idea discovered over the last five years.
The difficulty of obtaining an NC perfect matching algorithm led researchers to study matching vis-a-vis clever relaxations of the class NC. In this vein, Goldwasser and Grossman (2015) gave a pseudo-deterministic RNC algorithm for finding a perfect matching in a bipartite graph, i.e., an RNC algorithm with the additional requirement that on the same graph, it should return the same (i.e., unique) perfect matching for almost all choices of random bits. A corollary of our reduction is an analogous algorithm for general graphs.
This talk is fully self-contained.
Based on the following joint paper with Nima Anari: https://arxiv.org/pdf/1901.10387.pdf